Parts of the Standard Radial Tire
  1. Grooves
    Channels for water evacuation between tread and road surface.

  2. Ribs
    Circumferential bands of tread rubber between grooves for continuous road contact and traction, may be enhanced with sipes.

  3. Tread
    Contact area with road surface using various compound strategies like maximizing grip or mileage.

  4. Shoulder
    Transition element between tread and sidewall for traction during cornering and maneuvering.

  5. Belts
    Woven steel cord mesh for rigidity of tread rubber to reduce tread squirm and increase tread life.

  6. Undertread
    Compounded for high heat resistance to increase high-speed durability and sometimes fuel economy.

  7. Inner Liner
    Special rubber compound highly impervious to air migration for maintaining air pressure without leaking.

  8. Body Plies
    Either fabric cord (passenger and lgi8th truck tires) or steel cord (mainly truck tires) for structural strength of air chamber.

  9. Bead Cable
    Rigid cable serving as an anchor around which body plies are wrapped and which secures tire to rim flange area.

  10. Bead Apex/Filler
    Special hard rubber compound extending up into sidewall to increase flexing around bead cable and enhance stiffness of lower sidewall for improved handling.

  11. Bead Chafer
    Layer of fabric material protecting bead area from rim chafing and mounting damage.